Criticism of the Book of Revelation

Author: Eduardo Freire Canosa
(University of Toronto Alumnus)
E-mail: eduardofreireferrol@gmail.com

I grant the entire contents of this webpage to the public domain




Index

Clicking on a number will take you to the corresponding chapter right away

  1.    Introduction

  2.    Details of the Book of Revelation Study

  3.    The Jericho Ritual and the Book of Revelation

  4.    Further Reading




Introduction



Three webpages of mine tagged various verses of the Book of Revelation spurious. "The Fourth Trumpet" concluded that the first sentence of Rev. 8:12 is bogus. "The Number 666" listed two reasons for branding Rev. 13:18 counterfeit. The webpage "New York City Is 'Babylon The Great'" gave four reasons for labelling Rev. 17:9 false, and an accompanying footnote added Rev. 7 and Rev. 14:1-5 to the tally.

The time has come for broadening the inspection to the whole book. I skip chapters 1-3 (the ancient past) and chapters 21-22 (eternity).

The litmus test for accepting or rejecting blocks of Revelation text is clarity, internal logic and Old Testament compatibility. Consider the following trivial example. Rev. 13:11 says, "Then I saw another beast, coming out of the earth. He had two horns like a lamb, but he spoke like a dragon." Does a lamb really have horns? Therefore the text is already suspect. The reader is forced to admit that this correction makes far more sense, "Then I saw another beast, coming out of the earth. He looked like a lamb, but he spoke like a dragon." The mistake is not innocent. The presence of two horns on the lamb hampers the reader from correlating this "beast out of the earth" with the "little horn" of Daniel's Vision of Four Beasts (Daniel 7:8-11, 7:20-26).

Conclusions of the Study: Many passages are forgeries, they were not part of the original text. They are listed below,

  1. Chapter 4. The throne in heaven
  2. Chapter 5. The Lamb with seven horns and seven eyes
  3. Rev. 6:9-11. Recover The fifth seal
  4. Rev. 6:12-17. Recover The sixth seal
  5. Chapter 7. The 144,000 sealed from the 12 tribes of Israel (Part I)
  6. Chapter 10. The mighty angel with the little scroll
  7. Chapter 11. The two witnesses
  8. Rev. 14:1-5. The 144,000 sealed from the 12 tribes of Israel (Part II)
  9. Rev. 14:14-20. Four angels, two sickles and a white cloud
  10. Chapter 15. Prelude to the seven last plagues
  11. Chapter 16. The seven bowls of God's wrath
  12. Rev. 19:1-10. Major error: The wedding of the Lamb comes right after the fall of Babylon the Great
  13. Rev. 20:1-10. Major error: The binding of Satan for a thousand years

The seven seals and the seven trumpets are what remains of the original prophecy. Fortunately the genuine fifth and sixth seals are recoverable.

The fruit of the work is the revised version of the Book of Revelation that you can access by clicking on the "Open" button below.


The Revised Book of Revelation



Back To Index







Details of the Book of Revelation Study



  1. Chapter 4. The throne in heaven.
    Failure of: Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    This description of the throne in heaven is a shoddy version of Ezekiel 1 with a compulsion to strike a difference.

    The figure sitting on the throne here has the appearance of jasper and carnelian (v 3). Ezekiel's had the appearance of glowing metal from the waist up and of fire from the waist down.

    There is no Old Testament precedent for the mysterious twenty-four elders (v 4). Seventy elders of Israel together with Moses, Aaron and two of his sons, Nadab and Abihu, went up the mountain and had the privilege of seeing the God of Israel (Exodus 24:9-11). Why aren't they near the throne?

    There are seven lamps blazing before the throne (v 5) but no mention of a golden lampstand (Exodus 25:31-39).

    Before the throne there is what looks like a sea of glass (v 6). Ezekiel saw an expanse of what looked like ice spread out above the heads of the four living creatures (Ezekiel 1:22).

    The four living creatures of vs 7-8 are a twopenny version of Ezekiel 1:5-14. "The first living creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle" (v 7). Ezekiel's were identical quadruplets. "Each of the four had the face of a man, and on the right side each had the face of a lion, and on the left the face of an ox; each also had the face of an eagle" (Ezekiel 1:10). Ezekiel's four living creatures and the intersecting wheels which move back and forth with the speed of lightning symbolize the action of God's spirit over the four corners of the earth. You cannot dismember them.

    These living creatures have six wings (v 8). Ezekiel's had four.

    There is no mention of the chrysolite wheels (Ezekiel 1:15-21, cf. Daniel 7:9).

    There is an amusing breakdown of internal logic. The twenty-four elders, dressed in white and wearing a gold crown, are at first sight seated on their thrones (v 4). Whenever the living creatures give glory, honor and thanks to him who sits on the throne, the twenty-four elders lay their crowns before the throne, fall down and worship (vs 9-10). So far, so good. The trouble is that the living creatures, day and night, never stop saying, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was, and is, and is to come" (v 8, cf. Isaiah 6:2-3). Hence the elders could never have sat down and put their crown back on.

    Note: The reader will obtain a far more spectacular and probable description of heaven here.


  2. Chapter 5. The Lamb with seven horns and seven eyes.
    Failure of: Clarity. Internal logic. Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    There is no truth and there is no joy in this heaven. Flashes of lightning from the throne where a figure of jasper and carnelian sits guarded by four "living creatures" intoning their monotonous incantation, persistent rumblings of thunder, seven lamps blazing out in front, a ring of sporadic glints from every crown on the worshiping elders, a sea of crystal facing the throne. Grim.

    The figure sitting on the throne holds a scroll written on both sides (v 1, Ezekiel 2:9-10). Usually the person who holds a scroll is the one who opens and reads it (Deuteronomy 17:18, Isaiah 8:1, Jeremiah 36:1-8, Luke 4:16-17). Not here. A Lamb with seven horns and seven eyes, and "looking as if it had been slain," is called upon to perform the task (vs 2-6). The image is ghoulish, grotesque. Did Jesus perchance change into a lamb of seven horns and seven eyes on the Mount of Transfiguration? (Matthew 17:1-4, Mark 9:2-7). Moreover the representation of Jesus as a "Lamb" after his resurrection is an imposture (Matthew 13:24-30, 13:36-43). His end-time deportment is that of an avenger (Isaiah 63:1-6) and his dignity an absolute monarch's (Daniel 7:13-14).

    The explanation given for the Lamb's horns and eyes ("they are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth") contradicts the Old Testament and breaches internal logic. First, God has just one Spirit (Genesis 1:2, 41:38, Exodus 31:3, Numbers 24:2, 1 Samuel 10:10) or as Jesus said, "God is spirit" (John 4:24). Second, wasn't the reader previously informed that the seven spirits of God were the "seven lamps before the throne"? (Rev. 4:5). Internal evidence points to the intrusion of multiple writers here because earlier Rev. 3:1 (the letter to the angel of the church in Sardis) asserts out of the blue that the Living One "holds the seven spirits of God" in his hand omitting their description—are they horns, eyes or blazing lamps? Third, if the seven horns represent the undefined spirits of God, where is the need for seven eyes? Or is the number of spirits of God in fact fourteen?

    Upon the Lamb taking the scroll (with its mouth, with its hooves?) the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders bow down. "Each one had a harp and they were holding golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints" (v 8). Consider: every elder has two hands—presumably—with which to hold a golden crown (Rev. 4:10) a harp and a golden bowl. How do they ever manage?


  3. Rev. 6:1-8. The first four seals.
    Reference: My webpage entitled "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse."
    Verdict: Keep with trivial modifications.

    Who instead of the Lamb with seven horns and seven eyes should unseal the scroll? The answer is obvious. Jesus "the Lamb" trots off and Jesus the "Living One" (Rev. 1:12-18) walks in, picks up the scroll and unseals it.

    What about the four specious "living creatures" who act as ushers on vs 1, 3, 5 and 7? They are dramatic props that can be expunged without loss of information. Indeed the fifth, sixth and seventh seals have no ushers.

    With these two easy adjustments vs 1-8 read as follows,

    I watched as the Living One opened the first of the seven seals. I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest. When the Living One opened the second seal, another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword. When the Living One opened the third seal, I looked, and there before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. Then I heard a voice saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!" When the Living One opened the fourth seal, I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him. They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth.

    (Edited Rev. 6:1-8)


  4. Rev. 6:9-11. The fifth seal.
    Failure of: Internal logic. Contradicts Isaiah 57:2.
    Verdict: Discard And Replace.

    A seal on a scroll protects confidential, cryptic or unrevokable information (1 Kings 21:8-11, Esther 8:8, Daniel 8:26, 12:4). The first four seals comply and introduce the four horsemen of the Apocalypse. They were traditionally mistaken for Victory, War, Famine and Plague because the identity of each horse and rider was undecipherable until the time of the end. This canonical fifth seal lacks symbols, it is a lament. The vision of the harlot riding the scarlet beast (Rev. 17) is an offshoot of the four horsemen and it has a decipherable narrative of symbols. Therefore that vision is a true seal. It must replace Rev. 6:9-11.

    V 9, "I saw under the altar," supposes the reader's acquaintance with "the golden altar before the throne" (Rev. 8:3) indicating that the book has been seriously tampered with and jumbled.

    The imagery of an altar (v 9) pertains to the Old Testament, not the New (Hebrews 9).

    The martyrs' lament, "How long, Sovereign Lord, holy and true, until you judge the inhabitants of the earth and avenge our blood?" contradicts Isaiah 57:2, "Those who walk uprightly enter into peace; they find rest as they lie in death."


  5. Rev. 6:12-17. The sixth seal.
    Failure of: Internal logic.
    Verdict: Discard And Replace.

    This sixth seal is the enraged answer of God and the "Lamb" to the slaying of the martyrs. There is nothing to decode. The vision of the "beast out of the sea" and the "beast out of the earth" (Rev. 13:2-17) is the second offshoot of the four horsemen that unfolds a decipherable symbolic discourse. The vision is a true seal and it must replace Rev. 6:12-17.

    The ludicrous statement, "the stars in the sky fell to earth, as late figs drop from a fig tree when shaken by a strong wind" (v 13, cf. Isaiah 34:4) discredits Rev. 6:12-17 completely. This is probably the same writer who stations an angel on the sun's surface (Rev. 19:17) and who would have been the "first tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:12).


  6. Chapter 7. The 144,000 sealed from the 12 tribes of Israel (Part I).
    Failure of: Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    The "heavenly voice" makes an unconscionable error naming the twelve tribes of Israel (vs 5-8). Half-tribe Manasseh should not be included and Dan is missing. This error alone refutes the whole chapter and its sequel, Rev. 14:1-5.

    The author of Chapter 7 almost certainly wrote Chapters 4 and 5. In Old Testament lore both writers almost get it right. To wit Rev. 5:5, "Then one of the elders said to me, 'Do not weep! See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll and its seven seals.'" In the Old Testament the tribe of Judah is not a lion but a lion's cub (Genesis 49:9) like the tribe of Dan (Deuteronomy 33:22). The lion is the tribe of Gad (Deuteronomy 33:20). Therefore the author of chapters 4, 5 and 7 might be the "third tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:16). The third tacker-on makes a similar marginal mistake when he affixes the title "king of kings" to the "Lamb" (Rev. 17:14) and to the rider on the white horse. In the Old Testament the name "king of kings" is reserved for pagan kings Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:12) and Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 26:7, Daniel 2:37). Paul uses the term "King of kings and Lord of lords" to refer to the invisible God in the New (1 Timothy 6:15-16).


  7. Chapter 8. The first four trumpets.
    Reference: Irvin Baxter.
    Verdict: Keep. Abridge vs 2-6 and trim v 9.

    The cycle of the first six trumpets is full of concealed information. The writer has six visions, i.e., watches a "newsreel" of events two thousand years into the future, and obeying the instruction of the Living One, "Write, therefore, what you have seen, what is now and what will take place later" (Rev. 1:19) expresses himself as best he can. For example, "all the green grass was burned up" in the static fronts of the First World War; the detonation of the atomic bomb over the coastal town of Hiroshima was "something like a huge mountain, all ablaze, thrown into the sea"; a nuclear-power plant is a "star" (unearthly object) in his eyes and so on. The reader is referred to Irvin Baxter's The 7 Trumpets for his analysis of the first three trumpets (vs 7-11).

    V 1, "When he opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour," imitates an intermission in long shows perhaps to tip off about the addition of false cycles to the book, meaning that the absence of another intermission ahead of the seven bowls of God's wrath (Chapter 16) would tab that whole chapter spurious.

    It is foolish to even bother with, but theatrical vs 2-5 have three failures of internal logic. First, who gives the trumpets to the angels? (v 2, cf. Rev. 5:7, 15:7). Second, an angel came to the altar and "was given much incense to offer, with the prayers of all the saints" (v 3). Weren't prayers and incense in the golden bowls of the twelve elders? (Rev. 5:8). Third, the act of an angel hurling a burning censer down to the earth (v 5) usurps the role of the trumpets themselves.

    Vs 2-6 can be condensed without any loss of useful information,

    And I saw seven angels with seven trumpets prepared to sound them.

    (Abridged Rev. 8:2-6)

    The second trumpet (vs 8-9) has one ⅓ too many. In the first trumpet ⅓ of the earth was burned up and ⅓ of the trees were burned up. In the third trumpet a star falls on ⅓ of the rivers and ⅓ of the waters turned bitter. In the fourth trumpet ⅓ of the day was without light and also ⅓ of the night. Furthermore the three ⅓'s of the second trumpet replicate the bogus first sentence of the fourth trumpet, "a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars" (v 12). The reader is referred to my webpage entitled "The Fourth Trumpet" for my analysis of the fourth trumpet (v 12).

    Consequently vs 8-9 must drop one ⅓. Which one? Let's check the ⅓ pairings of the other three trumpets: "earth, trees" (first) "rivers, waters" (third) and "day, night" (fourth). Vs 8-9 carry the triplet "sea, living creatures, ships." Now you can't have trees without earth, you can't have waters without rivers, you can't have night without day. You can't have ships without a sea, but you can have living creatures without a sea, and you can also have a sea without living creatures (the Dead Sea). Therefore the clause "a third of the living creatures in the sea died" (v 9) is the candidate to rub out.


  8. Chapter 9. The fifth and sixth trumpets.
    Caution: Delete vs 4, 8, 14. Trim vs 5, 13. Modify v 15.
    Verdict: Keep.

    The reader is referred to Irvin Baxter's "The 7 Trumpets" for his analysis of the fifth and sixth trumpets (the hyperlink to his website is available above in the review of Chapter 8).

    Vs 4-6 hark back to the un-biblical seal put on the foreheads of the 144,000 Israelites (Rev. 7:2-4). This makes the three verses suspect right away,

    They [locusts] were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads. They were not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for five months. And the agony they suffered was like that of the sting of a scorpion when it strikes a man. During those days men will seek death, but will not find it; they will long to die, but death will elude them.

    (Rev. 9:4-6)

    Delete the first sentence, angels do not put the seal of God on the foreheads of believers.

    The second sentence, "They were not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for five months," pilfers the information contained in v 10. Erase.

    The third and fourth sentences fits well appended to v 10. No useful information is lost,

    They had tails and stings like scorpions, and in their tails they had power to torment people for five months. And the agony they suffered was like that of the sting of a scorpion when it strikes a man. During those days men will seek death, but will not find it; they will long to die, but death will elude them.

    (Rev. 9:10 followed by Rev. 9:5-6)

    V 8 lacks clarity. "Their hair was like women's hair" assumes that locusts have conspicuous hair (!) A different statement like "Strangely the locusts had hair like women's hair" would have been admissible. Then the clause "their teeth were like lions' teeth" hobbles on a size mismatch: a lion's tooth is bigger than a locust. The sentence should have said, "Giant locusts with teeth like lions' teeth," which could have been taken as the description of a modern war machine by a seer of two thousand years ago. Scratch v 8.

    Consider now the first four verses describing the sixth trumpet,

    The sixth angel sounded his trumpet, and I heard a voice coming from the horns of the golden altar that is before God. It said to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, "Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates." And the four angels who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill a third of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was two hundred million. I heard their number.

    (Rev. 9:13-16)

    The sentence, "and I heard a voice coming from the horns of the golden altar that is before God," contradicts Paul. The main function of the horns of an altar was to be daubed with the blood of a sacrificed animal as part of a ritual of purification (Exodus 29:12, Leviticus 4:7, 4:18, 4:25, 4:30, 4:34, 8:15, 9:9, 16:18). Therefore to have a voice issue from the "horns of the golden altar that is before God" is to declare animal sacrifices still valid (cf. Hebrews 9, 10:1-22). The voice is unlawful. The first corrective step therefore is to trim v 13,

    The sixth angel sounded his trumpet...It said to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, "Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates." And the four angels who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill a third of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was two hundred million. I heard their number.

    The unlawful voice said, "Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates." The second corrective step therefore is to delete what the voice said but transfer the clause "bound at the great river Euphrates" to the same "four angels" of v 15,

    The sixth angel sounded his trumpet, and the four angels bound at the great river Euphrates who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill a third of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was two hundred million. I heard their number.

    The inconsistency is evident. If the "four angels bound at the great river Euphrates" are released to kill a third of mankind, where is the need for the "mounted troops"? Either the four angels are extraneous to the original text or the mounted troops are. The incorporeal protocol (angel, unlawful voice, four angels) is non-germane to the physical manifestation of the sixth trumpet. Therefore the reasonable choice is to expunge the four angels from the text and replace them with the concrete killing agent, the "mounted troops." This is the third corrective step,

    The sixth angel sounded his trumpet, and the mounted troops bound at the great river Euphrates who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill a third of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was two hundred million. I heard their number.

    It is fair to question whether the clause "bound at the great river Euphrates" can still be applied to the "mounted troops." Prudence is called for. Therefore the fourth corrective step is to put the contentious clause in brackets and to insert a question mark,

    The sixth angel sounded his trumpet, and the mounted troops (bound at the great river Euphrates?) who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill a third of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was two hundred million. I heard their number.

    (Modified Rev. 9:13-16)

    Pasting v 19 after the first sentence of v 17 improves the readability of vs 17-20,

    The horses and riders I saw in my vision looked like this: Their breastplates were fiery red, dark blue, and yellow as sulfur. The power of the horses was in their mouths and in their tails; for their tails were like snakes, having heads with which they inflict injury. The heads of the horses resembled the heads of lions, and out of their mouths came fire, smoke and sulfur. A third of mankind was killed by the three plagues of fire, smoke and sulfur that came out of their mouths. The rest of mankind that were not killed by these plagues still did not repent of the work of their hands; they did not stop worshiping demons, and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone and wood—idols that cannot see or hear or walk.

    (Reordered Rev. 9:17-20)


  9. Chapter 10. The mighty angel with the little scroll.
    Origin: A separate book of prophecies.
    Verdict: Extraneous.

    This chapter infringes the two principles established by Rev. 5:1-9 that only God can hand out a prophetic scroll and that only the "Lamb" can open it. This chapter therefore comes from another book.

    A simple calculation shows how impracticable the portrait of the mighty angel with the little scroll is. The angel "planted his right foot on the sea and his left foot on the land" (v 2) implying that he is a colossus. To stage v 2 in your mind, plant his right foot 100 meters offshore, and by symmetry, plant his left foot 100 meters inland in a pose equivalent to a foot-to-foot separation of 60 centimeters for an average man 1.8 meters tall. The angel then must be 600 meters tall, a height that squares with the description, "He was robed in a cloud, with a rainbow above his head" (v 1). How can an average man take a scroll from a 600-meter-tall giant? (vs 8-10).

    The "voices of the seven thunders" (vs 3-4) speak between the sixth and seventh trumpets (vs 5-7) but communicate nothing to the reader, so why report them at all? This is probably the same writer who withholds the name of the rider on the white horse (Rev. 19:12).


  10. Chapter 11. The two witnesses.
    Origin: Vs 1-13 come from the same extraneous book of prophecies as does Chapter 10.
    Verdict: Discard except for v 14 (conclusion of the sixth trumpet) and v 15 (start of the seventh trumpet).

    V 1 continues the narrative of Chapter 10, "I was given a reed like a measuring rod (!) and was told, 'Go and measure the temple of God and the altar, and count the worshipers there.'"

    V 2 contradicts Jesus. According to v 2, the "holy city" will be trampled on by the Gentiles for 42 months. According to Jesus, "Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). V 2 implies that a foreign army will conquer Jerusalem again. Jesus' words deny that possibility.

    Vs 3-4 hijack Zechariah 4:1-5 and command the "two olive trees" to stand for two end-time "witnesses who stand before the Lord of the earth," but the "two olive trees" were Ezra (Ezra 7:11-26) and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 2:1-9) and the "Lord of the earth" was Persian monarch Artaxerxes.

    Vs 5-6 affirm that the "two witnesses" can spew fire (v 5) command drought (v 6, cf. 1 Kings 17:1, James 5:7) and "turn the waters into blood" (v 6, cf. Exodus 7:14-21). How then is it that "the beast was given a mouth to utter proud words and blasphemies and to exercise his authority for forty-two months"? (Rev. 13:5).

    V 8 has two odd phrases. First, the verse calls Jerusalem the "great city" instead of the "holy city" (v 2). "Great city" is the appelative reserved for Babylon the Great (Rev. 16:19, 17:18, 18:10-21). Second, the phrase "where also their Lord was crucified" is striking for not saying rather, "where also our Lord was crucified," insinuating that the writer was not a convinced Christian.

    V 13 is very much out of date. The two witnesses resurrect (v 11) after lying dead on "the street" of Jerusalem (v 8) for three and a half days (v 9) and "at that very hour there was a severe earthquake and a tenth of the city collapsed. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake" (v 13). First, one would expect the number of people killed in the earthquake to be at least a tenth of the city's population, making the maximum population of the city ≈ 10 × 7,000 earthquake victims ≈ 70,000 inhabitants, which is way under the actual figure for the municipality of Jerusalem: 987,400 inhabitants (year 2012). Second, "the street" of Jerusalem is today "many streets."

    Vs 16-18 bring back the twenty-four elders of the specious vision of the throne in heaven (Rev. 4:4) and thus can be safely ignored.


  11. Chapter 12. The woman with a crown of twelve stars.
    Origin: A separate book glorifying Mary the mother of Jesus.
    Verdict: Extraneous.

    V 3 is remarkable. The label "enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads" can be fitted to the Herodian dynasty. Red because the birthplace of the Herodian dynasty was Edom, which means "red" (Genesis 25:25-30, 36). Seven heads: Antipater, Herod the Great, Archelaus, Herod Antipas, Philip, Agrippa the First and Agrippa the Second. Ten horns: The ten wives of Herod the Great (nine wives are listed in Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 1, par. 3; Mariamne daughter of Alexandra daughter of Hyrcanus the high priest had already been murdered).

    It is also remarkable that the "dragon" of this extraneous book does not breathe fire but spews "water like a river" (vs 15-16). This is a Chinese dragon, implying that faraway China and Ancient Greece/Rome had come in contact direct or indirectly.


  12. Chapter 13. The beast out of the sea and the beast out of the earth.
    Caution: Transfer v 1. Trim vs 2, 8, 16-17. Delete vs 4, 18. Modify v 11.
    Verdict: Keep. This is the true sixth seal.

    V 1, "And the dragon stood on the shore of the sea," should be labelled Rev. 12:18 because it is in fact the closing verse of Chapter 12. The verse refers obliquely to the magnificent port city of Caesarea built by Herod the Great ("the dragon"). Flavius Josephus describes the city in Antiquities of the Jews, Book XV, Chapter 9, par. 6.

    Please notice how well the first sentence of v 2 dovetails with the first sentence of Rev. 6:12, "I watched as he opened the sixth seal,"

    I watched as he opened the sixth seal. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. He had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on his horns, and on each head a blasphemous name.

    (Partial Rev. 6:12 and Rev. 13:2 merged)

    However the next two sentences dismay,

    The beast I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion. The dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority.

    (Spurious partial Rev. 13:2)

    Doubtlessly the same impudent "genius" who dismembered Ezekiel's four living creatures (Rev. 4:7) has here amalgamated three of Daniel's four beasts (Daniel 7:4-6) and gone on to make the Herodian dynasty of Chapter 12 ("the dragon") sponsor the end-time beast of seven heads and ten horns. My webpage "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" contends that the leopard, the bear, the lion and the beast of seven heads and ten horns are four independent world powers. Excise these two misleading sentences from v 2. The "third tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:16) lets a certain antisemitic spleen show.

    V 4 again brings up "the dragon" (i.e., the devil personified in the Herodian dynasty). Foolish and unnecessary, probably the censor's work. The sensible information contained in v 4 duplicates that found on v 7, "He was given power to make war against the saints and to conquer them," and on v 8, "All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast." Therefore v 4 can be withdrawn safely.

    The suspect clause of v 8, "belonging to the Lamb that was slain," is unnecessary and it makes the subordinate sentence ambiguous. The phrase "book of life" is used without appendage elsewhere (Philippians 4:3, Rev. 17.8, 20:12, 20:15). Delete the "Lamb" clause.

    V 11 has been discussed already. The clause, "He had two horns like a lamb," is silly. The suggested replacement is, "He looked like a lamb, but he spoke like a dragon."

    Vs 16-17 are tainted by their association with the number 666 (v 18). Borderline Delete. At least blot out all mention of "the name of the beast or the number of his name,"

    He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark.

    (Edited Rev. 13:16-17)

    Note: A plausible reason for v 11, "He had two horns like a lamb," was the desire to dramatize the opposing nature of the two lambs in the book. The author may have reasoned that if the divine lamb has seven eyes and seven horns (Rev. 5:6) the devilish one with two eyes should by symmetry have two horns as well. However horns on a prophetic beast stand for its active allies. For example the "beast out of the earth" is a fawning ally of the "beast out of the sea" and therefore one of its horns (Daniel 7:8-11, 7:20-26).


  13. Rev. 14:1-5. The 144,000 sealed from the 12 tribes of Israel (Part II).
    Failure of: Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    The mistake made on Rev. 7:5-8 enumerating the twelve tribes of Israel invalidates this sequel.

    The location of the passage buttresses the thesis that the book is seriously scrambled. These verses should be labelled Rev. 7:18-22.


  14. Rev. 14:6-13. The three angels flying in midair.
    Caution: Trim vs 10, 11.
    Verdict: Keep. These are the true closing verses of the sixth trumpet, the very last verse being Rev. 11:14.

    These verses are the true conclusion of the sixth trumpet. The adjective another (v 6) has the angel who picks up a boulder the size of a large millstone for antecedent (Rev. 18:21).

    Mention of the "mark of the beast" is retained as a Borderline Delete. "If anyone worships the beast and his image and receives his mark on the forehead or on the hand" (v 9) and "There is no rest day or night for those who worship the beast and his image, or for anyone who receives the mark of his name" (v 11).

    The sentence, "He will be tormented with burning sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and of the Lamb" (v 10) is spurious for two reasons. First, the representation of resurrected Jesus as a "Lamb" is a sham: the "Living One" terrified the beholder (Rev. 1:13-18). Second, would a "Lamb" watch torture? The admonition, "There is no rest day or night for those who worship the beast and his image," suffices (v 11, cf. Isaiah 48:22, 57:21).

    The first sentence of v 11, "And the smoke of their torment rises for ever and ever," is a theatrical continuation of "He will be tormented with burning sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and of the Lamb" and so can also be safely withdrawn.

    Rev. 11:14 ends the passage of the sixth trumpet, "The second woe has passed; the third woe is coming soon."


  15. Rev. 14:14-20. Four angels, two sickles and a white cloud.
    Failure of: Clarity. Absurd assertions.
    Verdict: Discard.

    V 14 has one "like a son of man" sitting on a white cloud with a crown of gold on his head and a sharp sickle in hand. Crown and sickle must be as vaporous as the seated figure for the cloud to bear up the load. The author of this verse is probably the same careless writer who plummets the stars to earth (Rev. 6:13) and who places an angel on the sun (Rev. 19:17). In other words the "first tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:12).

    The ludicrous narrative continues through v 20. One wonders where the white cloud near the temple in heaven has come from? Surely not from the sea of glass (Rev. 4:6). What is the harvest of the earth? (v 16) Why are angelic foremen needed? (vs 15, 18) Are two reapers required for two swings of a sickle? (vs 16, 19). Why do the harvested grapes of earth release blood instead of grape juice when pressed? (v 20) What are these "winepress" and "city" made known suddenly on v 20?

    The suggestion is made that at least two writers intervened in this absurd passage. The first is responsible for vs 14-16. The second revamped the verses and he or even a third contributor penned v 20. A similar joust occurs on Rev. 19:12-16.

    V 20 is unclear. Is the "city" the "new Jerusalem" mentioned on Rev. 3:12? But isn't the fiery lake of burning sulfur the abode of "the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars"? (Rev. 21:8).

    V 20 is unrealistic. The grapes were trampled in the "winepress outside the city" and blood flowed out rising as high as the horses' bridles (1.5 meters off the ground approximately) for a distance of 1,600 stadia (160 kilometers approximately). Assume that one press liberates the whole river of blood 160 kilometers long and 1.5 meters deep. Assume as well that the unspecified width of this peculiar river equals d the diameter of the vat where the grapes were dumped. The vat's minimum height h required to prevent overflow is inversely proportional to d. For d = 4 meters, h = 76.4 kilometers! For d = 1 kilometer, h = 306 meters. Impracticable. The good bet is that the author of this "bloodthirsty" verse is the "second tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:13).


  16. Chapter 15. Prelude to the seven last plagues.
    Failure of: Clarity. Internal logic. Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    The chapter starts with a failure of clarity and of internal logic. "Those who had been victorious over the beast and his image and over the number of his name" (v 2) were given harps by God and they sang the song of Moses and the song of the "Lamb" (v 3). In what sense are they "victorious": were they warriors or were they martyrs? If warriors, doesn't the "beast out of the sea" govern every tribe, people, language and nation? (Rev. 13:7). If martyrs, aren't they lamenting under the altar until the end? (Rev. 6:9-11).

    The claim on v 3 that the victorious believers sing the song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32:1-43) ignores the purpose of that song: to indict backsliding Israelites (Deuteronomy 31:19-22). This serious blunder nullifies this chapter and intimates that the author is the same writer who botched naming the twelve tribes of Israel (Rev 7:5-8). In other words the "third tacker-on."

    The fallacious mention of "the number of his name" on v 2 and of the "Lamb" on v 3 confirms the falsity of the composition. The number 666 is an artful trick and the representation of Jesus as a "Lamb" after his resurrection is an imposture (Matthew 13:24-30, 13:36-43).

    According to vs 5-8 there is a temple in heaven (cf. Isaiah 6:1-7). This is another assurance of falsity. The concept of a "temple of God" belongs in the Old Testament. The "temple of God" in the New is the believer her/himself (1 Corinthians 6:19, 2 Corinthians 6:16).

    The chapter ends with a curious oversight or proof of butting tackers-on: since the seven angels exit the temple with the seven last plagues (v 6) the "seven golden bowls filled with the wrath of God" (v 7) are redundant.

    If the prelude is replete with fallacies what follows should be also.


  17. Chapter 16. The seven bowls of God's wrath.
    Failure of: Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard except for v 19 which belongs to the sixth trumpet.

    The fatal error shows up on the very first verse! V 1, "Then I heard a loud voice from the temple saying to the seven angels, 'Go, pour out the seven bowls of God's wrath on the earth,'" presumes to abrogate the Old Testament image of drinking a cup of God's wrath (Isaiah 51:17, Jeremiah 25:15, 49:12, Lamentations 4:21, Habakkuk 2:16). The "third tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:16) is the obvious culprit, his antisemitic spleen just keeps showing.

    However surprisingly incongruous v 19 does use the Old Testament image of God's cup of wrath. Hence v 19 is misplaced. The verse belongs to the sixth trumpet because the fall of "the great city" (Babylon the Great) occurs then and because the statement, "the cities of the nations collapsed," can only agree with a war that kills a third of mankind (Rev. 9:15-21). Therefore v 19 must be cut out and pasted after Rev. 9:18 thus,

    A third of mankind was killed by the three plagues of fire, smoke and sulfur that came out of their mouths. The great city split into three parts, and the cities of the nations collapsed. God remembered Babylon the Great and gave her the cup filled with the wine of the fury of his wrath.

    (Rev. 9:18 followed by Rev. 16:19)

    As expected, relocated v 19 leaves no gap behind,

    Then there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder and a severe earthquake. No earthquake like it has ever occurred since man has been on earth, so tremendous was the quake. Every island fled away and the mountains could not be found.

    (Rev. 16:18 followed by Rev. 16:20)

    These vs 18, 20 replay the discredited canonical sixth seal (Rev. 6:12-17).


  18. Chapter 17. Babylon the Great (Part I).
    Caution: Trim v 3. Delete vs 6, 9, 13-15. Modify vs 1, 7.
    Verdict: Keep. Vs 1-2 belong to the sixth trumpet. Vs 3-18 belong to the fifth seal.

    This chapter and the next one were read side by side to unravel what belongs to the fifth seal and what to the sixth trumpet. It is a difficult exercise and there is reason to believe that some material is missing.

    V 1, "One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, 'Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits on many waters,'" is problematic. First, the imprecision of the clause, "one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls" is unwarranted. Second, it is improper for any one of those angels to show "the punishment of the great prostitute" because the cycle of seven bowls of God's wrath comes after the punishment, internal logic nominates the angel with the sixth trumpet as the one entitled to show "the punishment of the great prostitute." Third, Chapter 16 was tagged spurious. For all these reasons the clause "one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls" must be changed to "the angel with the sixth trumpet."

    Vs 1-2 plus the large body of text related to the punishment of the great prostitute (Rev. 18) must appear after the introduction of the sixth trumpet (Rev. 9:13-21) and ahead of the description of the punishment of the great prostitute.

    Nor did they repent of their murders, their magic arts, their sexual immorality or their thefts. The angel with the sixth trumpet came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits on many waters. With her the kings of the earth committed adultery and the inhabitants of the earth were intoxicated with the wine of her adulteries."

    (Rev. 9:21 followed by Rev. 17:1-2)

    The first sentence of v 3, "Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a desert," baffles. First because the author is carried away by an angel in the Spirit, not by the Spirit alone as happens prior (Rev. 1:10, 4:2). Second, and more importantly, because it contradicts the assertion that the great prostitute sits on many waters (v 1). Later the same angel insists, "The waters you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations and languages" (v 15). The enigma is that there is no water anywhere in the vision of the harlot riding the red beast (vs 3-18). The presence of water is insinuated on Chapter 18 by the lament of "every sea captain, and all who travel by ship, the sailors, and all who earn their living from the sea" (Rev. 18:18-19). The proposed explanation is that there was an intermediate or supplementary vision which was expunged or lost; that is why v 15 lacks cogency.

    Hence rub out the first sentence of v 3 and also rub out orphaned v 15.

    Next splice Rev. 6:9 and the second sentence of v 3 to create the first verse of the true fifth seal,

    When he opened the fifth seal, (there) I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns.

    (Merged Rev. 6:9, 17:3)

    There is a lapse of internal logic with v 6. The "woman was drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of those who bore testimony to Jesus" yet the cup she holds is "filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries" (v 4). The author of "bloodthirsty" v 6 is the "second tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:13). Erase v 6. The verse reproduces information delivered by Rev. 18:24, so the erasure entails no loss.

    V 7 is problematic. Presumably the angel with the sixth trumpet offers to explain "the mystery of the woman and of the beast she rides," but that vision is communicable by a slide whereas the sixth trumpet event is a reel or video. Therefore the angel with the sixth trumpet is out of place here. Who should furnish the explanation of the vision of "the woman and of the beast she rides"? The optimum candidate is the "Living One" because he is the one who explains the mystery of "the seven stars and of the seven golden lampstands" (Rev. 1:12-20) which is also a slide. Moreover the "Living One" can explain any mystery.

    V 18 must head vs 8-18 to heed the order prescribed by v 7, "I will explain to you the mystery of the woman and of the beast she rides,"

    The woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth. The beast, which you saw, once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss and go to his destruction. The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the book of life from the creation of the world will be astonished when they see the beast, because he once was, now is not, and yet will come. The seven heads are seven kings. Five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; but when he does come, he must remain for a little while. The beast who once was, and now is not, is an eighth king. He belongs to the seven and is going to his destruction. The ten horns you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but who for one hour will receive authority as kings along with the beast. The beast and the ten horns you saw will hate the prostitute. They will bring her to ruin and leave her naked; they will eat her flesh and burn her with fire. For God has put it into their hearts to accomplish his purpose by agreeing to give the beast their power to rule, until God's words are fulfilled.

    (Reordered and edited Rev. 17:8-18)

    The webpage "New York City Is 'Babylon The Great'" has demonstrated that v 9, "This calls for a mind with wisdom. The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits," is fraudulent. Erase v 9.

    Redundant v 13, "They have one purpose and will give their power and authority to the beast," duplicates v 17. Erase v 13.

    The ill-advised image of the "Lamb" adverts to the disrupting influence of v 14, "They will make war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will overcome them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings—and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers." Its intrusion takes the focus off the unique message of the fifth seal while the information this verse holds is found on the sixth seal and on the seventh trumpet. Erase v 14. The author of this verse is the "third tacker-on" (see Rev. 19:16).


  19. Chapter 18. Babylon the Great (Part II).
    Caution: Delete vs 1-3, 20.
    Verdict: Keep. This is part of the sixth trumpet.

    The chapter opens with an angel who "had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor" (v 1). Since Rev. 17:1-2 belong at the head of this chapter, there ensues a logical clash between the angel of v 1 and the "angel with the sixth trumpet." Only one of the two can stay,

    After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven. He had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor. With a mighty voice he shouted: "Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great! She has become a home for demons and a haunt for every evil spirit, a haunt for every unclean and detestable bird. For all the nations have drunk the maddening wine of her adulteries. The kings of the earth committed adultery with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries."

    (Spurious Rev. 18:1-3)

    This angel is a petty trespasser in the dreadful domain of the sixth trumpet. His shout "Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great!" duplicates legitimate Rev. 14:8. "The maddening wine of her adulteries" is an embellished variant of "the wine of her adulteries" (Rev. 17:2). "The kings of the earth committed adultery with her" is also Rev. 17:2. "The merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries" precludes Rev. 18:15. All the marks of a plagiarist. His exclusive contribution, "She has become a home for demons and a haunt for every evil spirit," contradicts Jesus (Matthew 12:43-45). Discard vs 1-3.

    V 4 introduces "another voice from heaven" that carries the weight of the narrative to v 19. This heavenly voice makes the "angel with the sixth trumpet" almost expendable were it not for the unique datum this angel provides when he says, "Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits on many waters" (Rev. 17:1).

    The adjective "another" of v 4 demands a different "voice from heaven" prior. This first "voice from heaven" must be related to the "punishment of the great prostitute" and not be the voice of an angel. The only verses that fulfil both requirements are these voices from Rev. 19:1-2, placed ahead of vs 4-5 underneath,

    After this I heard what sounded like the roar of a great multitude in heaven shouting: "Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God, for true and just are his judgments. He has condemned the great prostitute who corrupted the earth by her adulteries. He has avenged on her the blood of his servants." Then I heard another voice from heaven say: "Come out of her, my people, so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not receive any of her plagues for her sins are piled up to heaven, and God has remembered her crimes."

    (Rev. 19:1-2 followed by vs 4-5)

    Rev. 19:3-4 are excluded from "the roar of a great multitude in heaven" because they bring in the "twenty-four elders" associated with the false vision of the throne in heaven (chapters 4-5).

    Nothing objectionable was detected in vs 6-19 or on vs 21-24.

    The double admonition of v 20, "Rejoice over her, O heaven! Rejoice, saints and apostles and prophets! God has judged her for the way she treated you," contradicts Jesus (Luke 15:7) and was probably inserted by the writer of vs 1-3. Furthermore "Rejoice over her, O heaven!" makes sense only if this is the end of the world, the martyrs under the altar have been given a white robe and told to be patient until then (Rev. 6:9-11).

    The indication is that the writer of v 20 indeed thought that the "punishment of the great prostitute" and the end of the world were concurrent because neighbouring Rev. 19:1-10 amplify this verse's call to rejoice, "for the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready" (Rev. 19:7). Crass error! The sixth trumpet and the fall of Babylon the Great are not the end of the world but the start of the worst period in human history (Isaiah 13, 24, 34, 63; Matthew 24:21-22). Cross out misleading v 20.

    The disposal of v 20 leaves no trace behind,

    They will throw dust on their heads, and with weeping and mourning cry out: "Woe! Woe, O great city, where all who had ships on the sea became rich through her wealth! In one hour she has been brought to ruin!" Then a mighty angel picked up a boulder the size of a large millstone and threw it into the sea, and said: "With such violence the great city of Babylon will be thrown down, never to be found again."

    (Rev. 18:19 followed by Rev. 18:21)


  20. Rev. 19:1-10. First major error: The wedding of the Lamb comes right after the fall of Babylon the Great.
    Failure of: Internal logic.
    Verdict: Discard except for vs 1-2 which belong in Chapter 18.

    It bears repeating one last time. The representation of Jesus as a "Lamb" after his resurrection is pretence. The parable of the man of noble birth who travelled to a distant country to have himself appointed king then return (Luke 19:12-27) ends with this verse, "But those enemies of mine who did not want me to be king over them—bring them here and kill them in front of me."

    Vs 1-2 are legitimate and have been transferred to Chapter 18.

    The accidental service rendered by the writer of "Lamb" verses is the easy spotting of many forgeries,

    And again they shouted: "Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up for ever and ever." The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne. And they cried: "Amen, Hallelujah!" Then a voice came from the throne, saying: "Praise our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, both small and great!" Then I heard what sounded like a great multitude, like the roar of rushing waters and like loud peals of thunder, shouting: "Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. Fine linen, bright and clean, was given her to wear." (Fine linen stands for the righteous acts of the saints). Then the angel said to me, "Write: 'Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!'" And he added, "These are the true words of God."

    (Spurious Rev. 19:3-9)

    The presence here of the "twenty-four elders and the four living creatures" of Chapter 4 attests to the falsity of all these verses. Whoever wrote fanciful Chapter 4 wrote these verses. The concomitant mention of the "Lamb" confirms the deceit.

    Theatrical v 3 is overwrought. "The smoke from her [Babylon the Great] goes up for ever and ever" even though "the sky receded like a scroll, rolling up, and every mountain and island was removed from its place" (Rev. 6:14, 16:20).

    Vs 4-5 are absurd. "God was seated on the throne" (v 4) yet a voice issues from the throne (v 5). A talking throne? The irreverent reader might bring to mind the "talking toilet" prank.

    V 7 contains the first major error of the canonical prophetic text. "For the wedding of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready," commits the unpardonable error of linking the "condemnation of the great prostitute" (v 2) to the end of the world, i.e. "the wedding of the Lamb." This association contravenes the right concatenation of events proclaimed by the three angels flying in midair: the "condemnation of the great prostitute" is followed by the reign of the "beast out of the sea" in tandem with the grovelling "beast out of the earth" (Rev. 14:6-13).

    The bracketed explanation in v 8 shows that a censor reviewed the book and inserted a comment here and on Rev. 20:5.

    The odd avowal on the lips of the angel, "These are the true words of God" (v 9) intimates that many in the early church disputed the theological content of this passage.


  21. Rev. 19:11-21. Elaboration of the seventh trumpet.
    Caution: Delete vs 12-13, 15-18, 21.
    Verdict: Keep vs 11, 14, 19-20.

    Please notice the good fit of Rev. 11:15 followed by Rev. 19:11,

    The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever." I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war.

    (Rev. 11:15 followed by Rev. 19:11)

    The first sentence of v 12, "His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns," fails the test of clarity. Is the rider's head laden with crowns?

    Vs 12, 13 and 16 expose three tackers-on who vied for the privilege of naming the rider on the white horse.

    The first tacker-on wrote v 12. His contribution, "He has a name written on him that no one knows but he himself," is refuted by v 11 ("Faithful and True") by v 13 ("his name is the Word of God") and by v 16 ("On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: King of kings and Lord of lords"). His rattling style fits the author of the "voices of the seven thunders" (Rev. 10:3-4).

    The second tacker-on wrote v 13, "He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God." He reproduces the strain of the scribe of the "river of blood" (Rev. 14:20).

    The third is the author of v 16, "On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: King of kings and Lord of lords." Curiously his contribution was pushed down two verses. This may indicate that he had the lowest standing or that he had been dead a long time.

    Who wins the joust? None of the above. V 11 and Rev. 11:15 furnish the reader amply with three adequate names: Christ, Faithful and True.

    The three tackers-on fashioned composite v 15,

    Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. "He will rule them with an iron scepter." He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty.

    (Rev. 19:15)

    Their separate identities are:

    Author of v 12: On his head are many crowns (!) Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword (!)
    Author of v 16: "King of kings and Lord of lords" (1 Timothy 6:15) "He will rule them with an iron scepter" (Rev. 2:27)
    Author of v 13: He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood He treads the winepress

    Theatrical v 17 stations an angel on the sun,

    And I saw an angel standing in the sun, who cried in a loud voice to all the birds flying in midair, "Come, gather together for the great supper of God, so that you may eat the flesh of kings, generals, and mighty men, of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all people, free and slave, small and great."

    (Rev. 19:17-18)

    The author makes light of the astronomical distance which separates the sun from the earth and of the inability of outer space to transmit sound. Blot out vs 17-18.

    The proper elaboration of the seventh trumpet appends legitimate vs 11, 14, 19-20 to Rev. 11:15,

    The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever." I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. Then I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against the rider on the horse and his army. But the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who had performed the miraculous signs on his behalf. With these signs he had deluded those who had received the mark of the beast and worshiped his image. The two of them were thrown alive into the fiery lake of burning sulfur.

    (Rev. 11:15 followed by Rev. 19:11, Rev. 19:14, Rev. 19:19-20)

    Please note that the "dragon" does not stand here beside the beast and the "false prophet" in the confrontation with the heavenly armies. This is the correct line-up, unlike the bogus "Armaggedon confrontation" proclaimed by the sixth bowl of God's wrath (Rev. 16:12-16).

    Borderline Delete. "With these signs he had deluded those who had received the mark of the beast and worshiped his image" (v 20).

    The first tacker-on wrote v 21, "The rest of them were killed with the sword that came out of the mouth of the rider on the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh." Consequently he is also responsible for vs 17-18.


  22. Rev. 20:1-10. Second major error: The binding of Satan for a thousand years.
    Failure of: Internal logic. Old Testament compatibility.
    Verdict: Discard.

    This is the second major error.

    The binding of Satan for a thousand years and his subsequent release (vs 1-3, 7-10) contradicts Rev. 11:15, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever."

    The binding of Satan for a thousand years and his subsequent release contradicts the Old Testament (2 Samuel 7:12-16, Psalms 9:7-12, 37:27-29, 66:7, Isaiah 9:6-7, 60:18-21, 65:17-25, Ezekiel 37:22-28, Daniel 2:44, 7:13-27, Micah 4:1-7).

    These ten verses do not have "Christ" depicted as a "Lamb," they do not have the twenty-four elders or the four "living creatures" stationed in heaven but simply "thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge" (v 4). The tone is restrained, without "bloodthirsty" images. Either these verses come from an extraneous source or their author is a fourth contributor.


  23. Rev. 20:11-15. The final judgement.
    Caution: Trim v 14.
    Verdict: Keep. Append to the seventh trumpet.

    The second sentence of v 14, "The lake of fire is the second death," is misleading and unnecessary. If true, it would imply the cessation of consciousness in the lake of fire (cf. Isaiah 33:14, Daniel 12:2, 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10). Cross it out.

    The pair "death and Hades" (vs 13-14) should be capitalized "Death and Hades" as they properly are in the description of the pale horse (Rev. 6:8). Thus the first sentence of v 14, "Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire," rounds out the destiny of three out of the four horsemen of the Apocalypse: the merchant, the swordsman and Death. The archer (Islam) is spared the lake of fire.

    Finally! vs 14 and 15 should trade places for a smoother reading,

    The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what he had done. If anyone's name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire.

    (Reordered Rev. 20:13-15)

    Note: The individual's fate is based upon her/his deeds, not the horse s/he may have been a part of.





Back To Index







The Jericho Ritual and the Book of Revelation



The Book of Joshua relates the fall of Jericho. The story foreshadows the end of our age, i.e. the access of saved humanity to the "Promised Land," and endorses the stance that the depiction of Jesus as a "Lamb" in the last days is completely false for the man seen by Joshua wielded a sword and dubbed himself commander of the army of the Lord (Joshua 5:13-15). The man prescribed a certain ritual for taking Jericho,

Then the Lord said to Joshua, "See, I have delivered Jericho into your hands, along with its king and its fighting men. March around the city once with all the armed men. Do this for six days. Have seven priests carry trumpets of rams' horns in front of the ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times, with the priests blowing the trumpets. When you hear them sound a long blast on the trumpets, have all the people give a loud shout; then the wall of the city will collapse and the people will go up, every man straight in."

(Joshua 6:2-5)

Seven priests carried trumpets in front of the ark, seven angels blow the trumpets of Revelation.

Revelation's pattern of seven seals and seven trumpets mimics the Jericho ritual of six days with one circuit plus a seventh day with seven circuits. Compliance demands that the seventh seal should trigger the round of seven trumpets and do nothing else.

Thirteen circlings of Jericho, thirteen milestones of Revelation. Compliance forbids adding any more milestones, ratifying the verdict to discard the seven bowls of God's wrath and the two witnesses.

Since Revelation was first written in Hebrew it is altogether fitting that the book's layout should conform to the Joshua 6:2-5 template.1 Compliance certifies the proximity of the Revised Book of Revelation to the original Hebrew text.



1 There are several indications that the earliest Book of Revelation was written in Hebrew. Possibly the most obvious is Rev. 9:11, "They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon." The gratuitous inclusion of a Hebrew word (Hebrew was a barbarian language to Greek and Roman civilization) that moreover precedes its Greek equivalent suggests that the primary book was written in Hebrew and that it was translated into Greek by Jews openly proud of their heritage (i.e. while Rome stayed well-disposed towards Judea before the rebellion of AD 66-70).




Back To Index







Further Reading



  1. Chronology of the Bible (status: ONLINE)

  2. Lenore: That Rare And Radiant Maiden (status: ONLINE)

  3. New York City Is "Babylon The Great" (status: ONLINE)

  4. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (status: ONLINE)

  5. The Fourth Trumpet (status: ONLINE)

  6. The Gold-Headed Statue of Nebuchadnezzar's Dream (status: ONLINE)

  7. The Number 666 (status: ONLINE)

  8. The Revised Book of Isaiah (status: ONLINE)

  9. The Revised Book of Revelation (status: ONLINE)

  10. The Soviet Union Almost Was the Red Beast of Revelation (status: ONLINE)






Return To Home Page